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COVID-19

How mothers2mothers is responding
to the global pandemic.

As COVID-19 rapidly spreads across the African continent, more than one million women, children, and families we work with in ten sub-Saharan African countries need us more than ever. Many are vulnerable and marginalised, and at a disproportionate risk of contracting COVID-19. mothers2mothers (m2m) Mentor Mothers are working tirelessly to turn the tide of COVID-19 across Africa. Our decades of experience of fighting the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and close ties to the communities we serve, make us uniquely placed to ensure access to lifesaving health education and services at this critical time.

We have launched a $6M emergency appeal to scale up our response, adapt our services, and protect our frontline team serving as “essential workers.” With your support, we will continue to meet the changing health needs of the  women and families that rely on us.

COVID-19 & Africa

COVID-19 has been described as a ticking time bomb for the African continent:

Africa’s health systems are critically understaffed and underresourced. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sub-Saharan Africa currently has a shortage of 4.2 million health workers. The continent is not equipped to handle a large-scale COVID-19 outbreak.

Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV in the world. According to UNAIDS, over nine million people are not accessing effective treatment on our continent, leaving them likely at greater risk of developing severe complications from COVID-19 because of their immunocompromised health status.

Other health conditions, including hypertension and diabetes, that can increase the risk of severe complications and death from COVID-19, are also widespread across the continent.

What is the novel coronavirus? (Courtesy WHO)

Operational Changes

m2m is resolutely maintaining and adapting our programmes and services during the COVID-19 pandemic without compromising the safety of our site staff (including Mentor Mothers, Peer Mentors, and Expert Clients) and clients. Many of our frontline staff have been designated as “essential workers” by governments during lockdowns, and are continuing to provide services at health centres.

To also continue providing the services that Mentor Mothers typically deliver in person and door-to-door in the community, and because some clients may be reluctant to visit them at health centres at this time, we are introducing a WhatsApp-based interactive platform – the “Virtual Mentor Mother” – where new and existing clients will receive vital COVID-19 and health information and support virtually. This is being complemented by regular one-on-one follow-up calls (underpinned by modified versions of our existing digital health apps), and Whats App chats to continue identifying and supporting those living with HIV, who may be more at risk of complications from COVID-19.

To support these brave team members who are working in extremely trying conditions, we have enacted a number of practical steps and policies, including:

EMPLOYEE WELLNESS

As one of the world’s largest employers of women living with HIV, we have educated our frontline staff on how to protect themselves from COVID-19 so they can stay safe, and can share this critical protection information with their clients.

PRACTICAL SUPPORT

We are procuring hand sanitiser, contactless thermometers, masks, and gloves for frontline staff.

SERVICE DELIVERY

We have developed a full service delivery toolkit which allows our country teams to follow clear “what-if” scenarios, modify their operations if required, and rapidly provide appropriate guidance to local teams.

TRAVEL

m2m has banned all international travel for employees, has limited the number of people in vehicles owned by m2m, and we are avoiding mass modes of public transport wherever possible.

HEALTH POLICIES

We have robust self-isolation and self-quarantine policies in place for staff who may have been exposed to COVID-19, whether through travel or contact exposure to a suspected or confirmed case.

REMOTE MENTORING

We are rapidly adapting our existing technology and piloting new tools to enable Mentor Mothers to provide virtual support to our clients if it becomes too risky to meet in person.

PARTNERSHIPS

We enjoy strong partnerships with national and regional governments in our countries of operation. We are building on these partnerships, deepening them to include new departments working on COVID-19, and striking new partnerships with technology providers and other implementers.

WORKING CONDITIONS & POLICIES

We are working with government partners to make sure Mentor Mothers have adequate protection (equipment and protocols) at the health centres where they work.

All of these policies have been agreed by m2m’s Crisis Management Team. This cross-functional team meets frequently to assess global and country-specific public health developments; determine appropriate responses especially suited for the working environments of our facility-, community-, and office-based staff; and provide scientific-based direction to our 2,000 team members and hundreds of thousands of clients who will contribute to the flattening of the coronavirus curve.

Why m2m Can Help

m2m is uniquely positioned to support women, children, and adolescents access lifesaving health services and critical COVID-19 education and support, at this time of urgent need:

Proven: With COVID-19 posing greater risks to populations living with HIV, m2m’s work to promote HIV testing and adherence to treatment is a critical first line of COVID-19 defence in Africa. In 2018, 94% of our clients living with HIV were adherent to their treatment more than 95% of the time.

Essential: Mentor Mothers have been designated as “essential workers” in countries that have implemented a lockdown—a clear testament of their vital contribution. They promote health services and treatment for HIV and other health issues that can increase the risk of serious complications from COVID-19, as well as relieve the burden on doctors and nurses at understaffed health centres, allowing these clinicians to focus on medical care.

Trusted: Living and working in the same communities as those they serve, m2m’s Mentor Mothers are a trusted source of health information. They are experts at cutting through misinformation and stigma to deliver lifesaving health knowledge and facts.

Experienced: Since 2001, Mentor Mothers have reached over 11M women and children across 10 African countries, linking them with vital health services and support.

Join us in supporting the nearly 1,700 Mentor Mothers who are continuing to deliver their critical services. Donate now.

m2m Mentor Mothers in action in Malawi

Support Our Appeal

We need you more than ever. While much of Europe, North America, and Asia may be nearing the peak of the crisis, Africa is just beginning to feel the brunt of COVID-19. While m2m Mentor Mothers remain steadfast in their mission of bringing health and hope to all, at a time where both are urgently needed, you can play a key part in ensuring they can reach even more families while staying safe. 

To do this, we have launched an urgent emergency appeal for $6 million. 

Your support could help us:

Respond: Scale up our emergency response to ensure that we can support our teams with testing, cover medical costs if they become infected, and/or salaries and benefits if it becomes unsafe for them to work.

  • $80 – could pay for a Mentor Mother to get tested for COVID-19.

Reach: Rapidly rollout our ‘Virtual Mentor Mother’ initiative, the innovative and interactive digital platform we are developing to support Mentor Mothers in their client outreach with both COVID-19 and HIV/AIDS services.

  • $200 – could fund a digital tablet for one Mentor Mother.

Protect: Purchase Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), including masks, gloves, and hand sanitiser, to our frontline staff who continue to tirelessly work to ensure the health needs of our clients are met.

  • $20 – could help buy a basic PPE kit.

Join us in reversing the tide of COVID-19 while protecting our frontline staff.

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Combating COVID-19

A shared resource center for our m2m community

As part of our response to the COVID-19 pandemic, m2m has created this shared Knowledge Centre. It contains regularly updated materials sourced by our team on the interactions of COVID-19 with pregnancy and childbirth; HIV, TB, and Malaria, and the virus’ impact on children. A number of other relevant categories have also been included. Our focus is on African and/or developing country contexts, so—while some global materials have been selected—all offer learnings that can be adapted and applied to these contexts.

This Knowledge Centre is a curated space of relevant content that we hope will play a part in the fight against COVID-19, especially on the African continent. Through this web portal, we aim to:

Ensure that we share what we are learning and help in the drive to apply academic and sector best practice to our collective response.

Assist our peers by ensuring that this thinking is shared openly, and triggers new conversations and collaborations.

COVID-19 Library

This Library section comprises of a collection of resources on COVID-19 that are especially relevant to an African/developing country context. These resources are categorised by themes. We have included a range of materials, such as research studies, implementation guides, and journal/magazine articles.

(To access Resources: Click + to expand the category. Then click on the title to read the full article.)

HIV | Malaria | TB |

What does the COVID-19 pandemic mean for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria control? (Travel Medicine and Health)

Recovery from COVID‐19 in two patients with coexisted HIV infection (Journal of Medical Virology)

It’s not all about COVID‐19: Pneumocystis pneumonia in the era of a respiratory outbreak (JIAS)

Clinical features and outcomes of HIV patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

COVID-19, HIV, and Migrant Workers: The Double Burden of the Two Viruses (AIDS Patient Care and STDs)

Tuberculosis, COVID-19 and migrants: preliminary analysis of deaths occurring in 69 patients from two cohorts (Pulmomology)

Why Aren’t People Living with HIV at Higher Risk for Developing Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)? (AIDS Patient Care and STDs)

The time is now: expedited HIV differentiated service delivery during the COVID‐19 pandemic (JIAS)

New diseases and old threats: lessons from tuberculosis for the COVID-19 response (International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)

Confronting Another Pandemic: Lessons from HIV can Inform Our COVID-19 Response (AIDS and Behavior)

The fight to end tuberculosis must not be forgotten in the COVID-19 outbreak (Nature Medicine)

COVID-19 and Tuberculosis: A mathematical model based forecasting in Delhi, India (Indian Journal of Tuberculosis)

Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Mitigation Steps Provide a Blueprint for Malaria Control and Elimination (Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg)

HIV Care Continuum and COVID-19 Outcomes Among People Living with HIV During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Chicago, IL (AIDS and Behavior)

HIV and Food Insecurity: A Syndemic Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic (AIDS and Behavior)

“Keep It Going if You Can”: HIV Service Provision for Priority Populations During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Seattle, WA (AIDS and Behavior)

COVID‑19 in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a case series of 33 patients (Infection)

COVID-19 and ART: the view of the Italian Society of Fertility and Sterility and Reproductive Medicine (RBMO)

Unproven herbal remedy against COVID-19 could fuel drug-resistant malaria, scientists warn (Science)

Assessing HIV‑Related Stigma in Healthcare Settings in the Era of the COVID‑19 Pandemic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (AIDS and Behavior)

Routine Screening for HIV in an Urban Emergency Department During the COVID‑19 Pandemic (AIDS and Behavior)

COVID-19 and malaria: A symptom screening challenge for malaria endemic countries (International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Prioritizing Community Partners and Community HIV Workers in the COVID‑19 Pandemic (AIDS and Behavior)

Tested by HIV and TB, South Africa confronts new pandemic (Science)

HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infected patients in Istanbul, Turkey (Journal of Medical Virology)

COVID-19 in Tuberculosis patients: a report of three cases (Journal of Medical Virology)

COVID‑19: Increased Risk to the Mental Health and Safety of Women Living with HIV in South Africa (AIDS and Behavior)

Evolving ART crisis for people living with HIV in Indonesia (The Lancet HIV)

Contact tracing for COVID-19: An opportunity to reduce health disparities and End the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the US. (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

COVID‑19 Pandemic Disrupts HIV Continuum of Care and Prevention: Implications for Research and Practice Concerning Community‑Based Organizations and Frontline Providers (AIDS and Behavior)

The Virus that Changed Spain: Impact of COVID‑19 on People with HIV (AIDS and Behavior)

Case Report: One Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Patient Co-infected by HIV With a Low CD4+ T Cell Count (International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Inuit communities can beat COVID-19 and tuberculosis (The Lancet Public Health)

From HIV to Coronavirus: AIDS Service Organizations Adaptive Responses to COVID‑19, Birmingham, Alabama (AIDS and Behavior)

When pandemics collide (The Lancet HIV)

Social and behavioral health responses to COVID‑19: lessons learned from four decades of an HIV pandemic (J Behav Med)

Global Spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Malaria: An Epidemiological Paradox in the Early Stage of A Pandemic (JCM)

Physical Distancing in COVID‑19 May Exacerbate Experiences of Social Isolation among People Living with HIV (AIDS and Behavior)

Lessons learned from HIV can inform our approach to COVID‐19 stigma (JIAS)

When Pandemics Call: Community‑Based Research Considerations for HIV Scholars (AIDS and Behavior)

Diagnosing malaria and other febrile illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet Global Health)

COVID‑19‑Compliant Strategies for Supporting Treatment Adherence Among People Living with HIV in Sub‑Saharan Africa (AIDS and Behavior)

Covid-19: Keep essential malaria services going during pandemic, urges WHO (BMJ)

The time is now: expedited HIV differentiated service delivery during the COVID‐19 pandemic (JIAS)

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic expanding in sub-Saharan Africa: Considerations for COVID-19 in people living with HIV (EClinicalMedicine)

Is Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) seen less in countries more exposed to Malaria? (Medical Hypotheses)

Incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and countries affected by malarial infections (Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)

The Burden of COVID‑19 in People Living with HIV: A Syndemic Perspective (AIDS and Behavior)

Symptoms, Stress, and HIV‑Related Care Among Older People Living with HIV During the COVID‑19 Pandemic, Miami, Florida (AIDS and Behavior)

Contracting HIV or Contracting SAR-CoV-2 (COVID- 19) in Pregnancy? Balancing the Risks and Benefits (AIDS and Behavior)

Preparedness is essential for malaria-endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet)

Could HIV infection alter the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection? When less is better (Journal of Medical Virology)

Collective Call to Action for HIV/AIDS Community‑Based Collaborative Science in the Era of COVID‑19 (AIDS and Behavior)

What’s Old is New! Similarities Between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV (JANAC)

Computed Tomography Imaging of an HIV-infected Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Journal of Medical Virology)

COVID-19 in patients with HIV: clinical case series (The Lancet HIV)

Early virus clearance and delayed antibody response in a case of COVID-19 with a history of co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Three lessons for the COVID-19 response from pandemic HIV (The Lancet HIV)

Tuberculosis and HIV responses threatened by COVID-19 (The Lancet HIV)

Responding to Pandemics: What We’ve Learned from HIV/AIDS (AIDS and Behavior)

Tuberculosis and novel Wuhan coronavirus infection: Pathological interrelationship (Indian Journal of Tuberculosis)

Celebrating TB day at the time of COVID-19 (European Respiratory Journal)

Interaction between malarial transmission and BCG vaccination with COVID-19 incidence in the world map: A cross-sectional study (medRxiv)

Maintaining HIV care during the COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet HIV)

Impact of New Coronavirus Epidemics on HIV-Infected Patients (AIDS Review)

Co‐infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 and HIV in a patient in Wuhan city, China (Journal of Medical Virology)

SARS-CoV-2 and HIV(Journal of Medical Virology)

Reply to Comments on ‘Co‐infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 and HIV in a patient in Wuhan city, China’ (Journal of Medical Virology)

Pregnancy

Are Covid-19-positive mothers dangerous for their term and well newborn babies? Is there an answer? (J Perinat Med.)

Coronavirus in pregnancy and delivery: rapid review (Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology)

COVID-19 infection during pregnancy: fetus as a patient deserves more attention. (J Perinat Med.)

A Proposed Plan for Prenatal Care to Minimize Risks of COVID-19 to Patients and Providers: Focus on Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (American Journal of Perinatology)

Prone positioning and high-flow oxygen improved respiratory function in a 25-week pregnant woman with COVID-19 (European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive)

Laboratory Abnormalities in Pregnant Women with Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (American Journal of Perinatology)

Acute kidney injury in pregnant women following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report from Iran (Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)

Pregnant women complicated with COVID-19: a clinical analysis of 3 cases (Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban.)

MATERNAL AND NEONATAL CONSEQUENCES OF CORONAVIRUS COVID-19 INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY: A SCOPING REVIEW (Revista Española de Salud Pública)

Pregnant and postpartum women with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in intensive care in Sweden (AOGS)

Current State of Knowledge About SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Disease in Pregnant Women (Medical Science)

Severe maternal morbidity and mortality associated with COVID‐19: The risk should not be down‐played (AOGS)

Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Care of critically ill pregnant patients with COVID-19: a case series  (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Clinical course of severe and critical COVID-19 in hospitalized pregnancies: a US cohort study (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Psychological Impact of COVID-19 in pregnant women (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Intensive Care Unit Admissions for Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women withCOVID-19 (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Severe COVID-19 infection in pregnancy requiring intubation without preterm delivery: A case report (Case Reports in Women’s Health)

SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy: symptomatic pregnant women are only the tip of the iceberg (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Preterm Pregnant Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy – Combating Isolation to Improve Outcomes (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

A Postpartum Death Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Covid-19: Nine in 10 pregnant women with infection when admitted for delivery are asymptomatic, small study finds (BMJ)

Critically ill pregnant patient with COVID‐19 and neonatal death within two hours of birth (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Severe ARDS in COVID-19-infected pregnancy: obstetric and intensive care considerations (American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Mental health care for pregnant women in the COVID-19 outbreak is urgently needed (Women and Birth)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: a systematic review (THE JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE)

Second-Trimester Miscarriage in a Pregnant Woman With SARS-CoV-2 Infection (JAMA)

Outcome of Coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID 1 -19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis (American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Early Acute Respiratory Support for Pregnant Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Analysis of vaginal delivery outcomes among pregnant women in Wuhan, China during the COVID‐19 pandemic (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Pregnant women’s knowledge and practice of preventive measures against COVID‐19 in a low‐resource African setting (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Maternal Death Due to COVID-19 Disease (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

COVID‐19 in pregnancy: risk of adverse neonatal outcomes (Journal of Medical Virology)

Vaginal delivery in SARS‐CoV‐2 infected pregnant women in Northern Italy: a retrospective analysis (BJOG)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women: A report based on 116 cases (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Clinical presentations and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia in pregnant women and health status of their neonates (Science Bulletin)

Screening all pregnant women admitted to Labor and Delivery for the virus responsible for COVID-19 (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy (International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Rapid Deployment of a Drive-Through Prenatal Care Model in Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Management of the first patient with confirmed COVID‐19 in pregnancy in India: From guidelines to frontlines (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy – Responding to a Rapidly Evolving Situation (Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Forecasting the Impact of Coronavirus Disease During Delivery Hospitalization: An Aid for Resources Utilization (American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology)

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy – a Review of the Current Literature and Possible Impact on Maternal and Neonatal Outcome (Geburtsh Frauenheilk)

A systematic scoping review of COVID‐19 during pregnancy and childbirth (International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics)

Analysis of the susceptibility to COVID-19 in pregnancy and recommendations on potential drug screening (European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases)

A pregnant woman and the SARS-CoV-2 infection: how are barriers easily crossed? (Recenti Prog Med)

How should we treat pregnant women infected with SARS‐CoV‐2? (BJOG)

Clinical analysis of ten pregnant women with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study (International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Maternal health care management during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (Journal of Medical Virology)

Clinical Manifestation and Laboratory Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnant Women (Virologica Sinica)

COVID19 during pregnancy: a systematic review of reported cases. (Am J Obstet Gynecol)

Clinical Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Covid-19 in Wuhan, China (NEJM)

Delivery in pregnant women infected with SARS‐CoV‐2: A fast review (IJGO)

Clinical characteristics of 19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 (Frontiers of Medicine)

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia: a case-control study (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes with COVID‐19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies (AOGS)

COVID‐19 in pregnancy with comorbidities: More liberal testing strategy is needed (AOGS)

Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological viewpoint (Journal of Reproductive Immunology)

The Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in pregnancy: what we need to know (European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)

COVID19 and Breastfeeding: Not That Simple (Journal of Human Lactation)

Risks of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Pregnancy; a Narrative Review (Arch Acad Emerg Med)

Clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-centre, descriptive study (The Lancet

Infectious Diseases)

Management of pregnant women infected with COVID-19 (The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

Guidelines for pregnant women with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

COVID-19 in pregnant women (The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

COVID-19 in pregnant women – Authors’ reply (The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

Vertical Transmission

Comment of the potential risks of sexual and vertical transmission of Covid-19 infection (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Unlikely SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission from mother to child: A case report (Journal of Infection and Public Health)

Intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2: what we know so far (Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology)

Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) from Infected Pregnant Mothers to Neonates: A Review (Fetal and Pediatric Pathology)

Antibodies in Infants Born to Mothers With COVID-19 Pneumonia (JAMA)

Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected Mother to Her Newborn (JAMA)

Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China (JAMA Pediatrics)

Can SARS-CoV-2 Infection Be Acquired In Utero? More Definitive Evidence Is Needed (JAMA)

Perinatal Transmission of COVID-19 Associated SARS-CoV-2: Should We Worry? (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Lack of Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, China (EID Journal)

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records (The Lancet)

A Case Report of Neonatal 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Impact of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the risk of maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 during natural birth (Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology)

Infants and Children

Managing COVID-19 Infection in pediatric patients (Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine)

COVID-19 in Children, Pregnancy and Neonates: A Review of Epidemiologic and Clinical Features (The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)

Kids’ COVID-Linked Ailment Is Not Your Typical Kawasaki Disease (MEDPAGE Today)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Children and AdolescentsA Systematic Review (JAMA Pediatrics)

2020 Health Alert #13:Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory SyndromePotentially Associated with COVID-19 (NYC Health)

Children Are Falling Ill With a Baffling Ailment Related to Covid-19 (NYT)

What to Know About Kawasaki Disease, the Pediatric Inflammatory Condition Possibly Linked to COVID-19 (TIME)

Kawasaki Disease From COVID-19 in Kids: How Common? — Warnings out on inflammatory syndrome but many questions remain (MEDPAGE Today)

COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Novel Virus and Novel Case (Hosp Pediatr)

COVID-19: How to Recognize and Manage Kawasaki-like Syndrome (Medscape)

Children With Kawasaki-Like Disease Positive for COVID-19 (Medscape)

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children (NEJM)

Children with Covid-19 in Pediatric Emergency Departments in Italy (NEJM)

Mental Health Status Among Children in Home Confinement During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in Hubei Province, China (JAMA Pediatrics)

Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Units (JAMA Pediatrics)

The implications of COVID-19 for the care of children living in residential institutions (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

Atypical presentation of COVID-19 in young infants (The Lancet)

Promoting healthy movement behaviours among children during the COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

The immune system of children: the key to understanding SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility? (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

Hyperinflammatory shock in children during COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet)

COVID-19 in a 26-week preterm neonate (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

COVID-19 and newborn health: systematic review (Pan American Journal of Public Health)

Lung Ultrasound in Children with COVID-19: Preliminary Findings (Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)

COVID-19 and its impact on the pediatric patient (The Hospitalist)

Clinical characteristics and diagnostic challenges of pediatric COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis (J Formos Med Assoc.)

COVID-19 in children – Current status (Journal of the Chinese Medical Association)

Neonatal Late Onset Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Am J Perinatol)

To breastfeed or not to breastfeed? Lack of evidence on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in breastmilk of pregnant women with COVID-19 (Pan American Journal of Public Health)

Children are not COVID-19 super spreaders: time to go back to school (Disease in Childhood)

A child confirmed COVID-19 with only symptoms of conjunctivitis and eyelid dermatitis (Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children — United States, February 12–April 2, 2020 (CDC)

Screening and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Children in Madrid, Spain (JAMA)

Breast feeding at the time of COVID-19: do not forget expressed mother’s milk, please (ADC Fetal and Neonatal)

Breastfeeding and Coronavirus Disease‐2019. Ad interim indications of the Italian Society of Neonatology endorsed by the Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (Maternal and Child Nutrition)

Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Coronavirus disease 2019 in Children (Clin Exp Pediatr)

COVID-19, school closures, and child poverty: a social crisis in the making (The Lancet Public Health)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Critically Ill Children: A Narrative Review of the Literature (Pediatr Crit Care Med)

Novel coronavirus infection in children outside of Wuhan, China (Pediatric Pulmonology)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children (CDC)

COVID-19 in Children and Altered Inflammatory Responses (Pediatric Research)

Will children reveal their secret? The coronavirus dilemma (European Respiratory Journal)

Feeding Low-Income Children during the Covid-19 Pandemic (NEJM)

Epidemiological Characteristics of 2143 Pediatric Patients With 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China (Pediatrics)

COVID-19 infection in children (The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Children What Pediatric Health Care Clinicians Need to Know (JAMA)

COVID-19 in children: the link in the transmission chain (The Lancet Infectious Disease)

Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study (The Lancet Infectious Disease)

The first infant case of COVID-19 acquired from a secondary transmission in Vietnam (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China (JAMA)

Detection of Covid-19 in Children in Early January 2020 in Wuhan, China (NEJM)

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children (NEJM)

Lessons unfolding from pediatric cases of COVID‐19 disease caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 infection (Pediatric Pulmonology)

Managing COVID-19 in LMICs

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Zimbabwe: Quo vadis? (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Prediction of the COVID-19 spread in African countries and implications for prevention and control: A case study in South Africa, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Senegal and Kenya (Science of the Total Environment)

Limiting the spread of COVID-19 in Africa: one size mitigation strategies do not fit all countries (The Lancet Global Health)

COVID-19 in Nigeria: a disease of hunger (The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)

Keeping COVID-19 at bay in Africa (The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)

Infection prevention and control compliance in Tanzanian outpatient facilities: a cross-sectional study with implications for the control of COVID-19 (The Lancet Global Health)

COVID-19 on the African continent (The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

Access to lifesaving medical resources for African countries: COVID-19 testing and response, ethics, and politics (The Lancet)

Mapping Risk Factors for the Spread of COVID-19 in Africa (Africa Center for Strategic Studies)

Managing Health and Economic Priorities as the COVID-19 Pandemic Spreads in Africa (Africa Center for Strategic Studies)

The prospects for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Africa (EMBO Mol Med)

Africa in the Path of Covid-19 (NEJM)

Projection of COVID-19 Pandemic in Uganda (medRxiv)

Strategies to control COVID-19 and future pandemics in Africa and around the globe (European Heart Journal)

COVID-19 in Africa (Nature)

COVID-19 threatens health systems in sub-Saharan Africa: the eye of the crocodile (Journal of Clinical Investigation)

The COVID-19 Pandemic Effects on Low and Middle-Income Countries (Anesthesia & Analgesia Journal)

Managing COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (JAMA)

Adoption of COVID-19 triage strategies for low-income settings (The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)

Impact on Health Care Workers

Tackling the mental health burden of frontline healthcare staff in the COVID-19 pandemic: China’s experiences (Psychological Medicine)

Mental Health Needs of Health Care Workers Providing Frontline COVID-19 Care (JAMA)

Focusing on health-care providers’ experiences in the COVID-19 crisis (The Lancet Global Health

The experiences of health-care providers during the COVID-19 crisis in China: a qualitative study (The Lancet Global Health)

Covid-19: adverse mental health outcomes for healthcare workers (BMJ)

Covid fatigue is taking an enormous toll on healthcare workers (BMJ)

Covid-19: The time to shield all pregnant frontline workers is now (BMJ)

Psychological impact on women health workers involved in COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan: a cross-sectional study (BMJ)

Occurrence, prevention, and management of the psychological effects of emerging virus outbreaks on healthcare workers: rapid review and meta-analysis (BMJ)

Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for Coronavirus Infection in Health Care Workers: A Living Rapid Review (Annals of Internal Medicine)

Sleep disturbances among medical workers during the outbreak of COVID-2019 (Occupational Medicine)

Barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases: a rapid qualitative evidence synthesis (Cochrane Library)

A Qualitative Study on the Psychological Experience of Caregivers ofCOVID-19 Patients (American Journal of Infection Control)

Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Singapore (Annals of Internal Medicine)

Caring for the carers: Ensuring the provision of quality maternity care during a global pandemic (Women and Birth)

Reducing hand recontamination of health workers during COVID-19 (Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology)

Understanding and Addressing Sources of Anxiety Among Health Care Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic (JAMA)

Protect our healthcare workers (BMJ)

Protecting health-care workers from subclinical coronavirus infection (The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)

Supporting the Health Care Workforce During the COVID-19 Global Epidemic (JAMA)

Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (JAMA)

The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic (BMJ)

Care  for  the psychological  status of frontline medical  staff fighting  against COVID-19 (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Mitigation Strategies

Virtual treatment and social distancing (The Lancet Psychiatry)

A reality check on the use of face masks during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong (EClinicalMedicine)

Effective transmission across the globe: the role of climate in COVID-19 mitigation strategies (The Lancet Planetary Health)

Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings (BMJ)

Covid-19: Quarantine works when introduced early alongside other measures, finds review (BMJ)

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review (BMJ)

Social Distancing—What Would It Mean for It to Work? (JAMA Health Forum)

Public Health Interventions for COVID-19Emerging Evidence and Implications for an Evolving Public Health Crisis (JAMA)

From Mitigation to Containment of the COVID-19 Pandemic (JAMA)

Pandemic school closures: risks and opportunities (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

Social distancing to slow the U.S. COVID-19 epidemic: an interrupted time-series analysis (medRxiv)

Lockdown contained the spread of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in Huangshi city, China: Early epidemiological findings (Clinical Infectious Diseases)

Is home isolation appropriate for preventing the spread of COVID-19? (Public Health)

Sustainable social distancing through facemask use and testing during the Covid-19 pandemic (medRxiv)

Estimating the effect of physical distancing on the COVID-19 pandemic using an urban mobility index (medRxiv)

Evaluation of the lockdowns for the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Italy and Spain after one month follow up (Science of the Total Environment)

School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review (The Lancet Child % Adolescent Health)

Social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic: Staying Home Save Lives (The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)

The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study (The Lancet Public Health)

Evaluating the effectiveness of social distancing interventions against COVID-19 (medRxiv)

Preparation for Possible Sustained Transmission of 2019 Novel Coronavirus – Lessons From Previous Epidemics (JAMA)

Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities (The Lancet Infectious Disease)

Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19 (The Lancet Infectious Disease)

Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study (The Lancet Infectious Disease)

COVID-19: extending or relaxing distancing control measures (The Lancet Public Health)

Deciphering the power of isolation in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks (The Lancet Global Health)

Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts (The Lancet Global Health)

COVID-19: four fifths of cases are asymptomatic, China figures indicate (BMJ)

The effectiveness of the quarantine of Wuhan city against the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19): well‐mixed SEIR model analysis (Journal of Medical Virology)

Psychosocial Impact

Mental Health in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Emergency—The Italian Response (JAMA Psychiatry)

Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak (The Lancet Psychiatry)

COVID-19, unemployment, and suicide (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Mental health of family, friends, and co-workers of COVID-19 patients in Japan (Psychiatry Research)

Assuring mental health during our current pandemic (Archives of Psychiatric Nursing)

Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic (NEJM)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Mental Health for Children and Adolescents (JAMA Pediatrics)

The Mental Health Consequences of COVID-19 and Physical Distancing – The Need for Prevention and Early Intervention (JAMA Internal Medicine)

Suicide Mortality and Coronavirus Disease 2019—A Perfect Storm? (JAMA Psychiatry)

Joint International Collaboration to Combat Mental Health Challenges During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic (JAMA Psychiatry)

Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19 (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

The impact of early social distancing at COVID-19 Outbreak in the largest Metropolitan Area of Brazil. (medRxiv)

Behavioral and Emotional Disorders in Children during the COVID-19 Epidemic (The Journal of Pediatrics)

How Do We Balance Tensions Between COVID-19 Public Health Responses and Stigma Mitigation? Learning from HIV Research (AIDS and Behavior)

Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic (Asian Journal of Psychiatry)

Anxiety, worry and perceived stress in the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, March 2020. Preliminary results. (medRxiv)

COVID-19 and maternal mental health: Are we getting the balance right? (medRxiv)

The distress of Iranian adults during the Covid-19 pandemic – More distressed than the Chinese and with different predictors (medRxiv)

First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies (Asian Journal of Psychiatry)

Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health (Journal of Clinical Nursing)

Social distancing in covid-19: what are the mental health implications? (BMJ)

Narrative synthesis of psychological and coping responses towards emerging infectious disease outbreaks in the general population: practical considerations for the COVID-19 pandemic (Singapore Medical Journal)

Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study (Psychiatry Research)

The impact of unplanned school closure on children’s social contact: rapid evidence review (Eurosurveillance)

People with Suspected COVID-19 Symptoms Were More Likely Depressed and Had Lower Health-Related Quality of Life: The Potential Benefit of Health Literacy (Journal of Clinical Medicine)

The COVID-19 pandemic calls for spatial distancing and social closeness: not for social distancing! (International Journal of Public Health)

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey (Int J Biol Sci)

Understanding coronavirus disease (COVID-19) risk perceptions among the public to enhance risk communication efforts: a practical approach for outbreaks, Finland, February 2020 (Eurosurveillance)

Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic (The Lancet Psychiatry)

Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19 (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

Protecting the psychological health of children through effective communication about COVID-19 (The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health)

Mental health services for older adults in China during the COVID-19 outbreak (The Lancet Psychiatry)

A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations (BMJ)

The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence (The Lancet)

How to safeguard children’s mental health during emergencies (Pediatric Investigation)

The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and implications for clinical practice (European Psychiatry)

Countrywide quarantine only mildly increased anxiety level during COVID-19 outbreak in China (medRxiv)

Transmission

Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19 (Nature Medicine)

Clinical Characteristics and Results of Semen Tests Among Men With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (JAMA)

Droplets and Aerosols in the Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (NEJM)

Covid-19: four fifths of cases are asymptomatic, China figures indicate (BMJ)

Could SARS-CoV-2 be transmitted via speech droplets? (medRxiv)

Estimating the presymptomatic transmission of COVID19 using incubation period and serial interval data (medRxiv)

Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (medRxiv)

Alert for SARS-CoV-2infection caused by fecal aerosols in rural areas in China (Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology)

Aerodynamic Characteristics and RNA Concentration of SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol in Wuhan Hospitals during COVID-19 Outbreak (bioRxiv)

Effectiveness of Surgical and Cotton Masks in Blocking SARS–CoV-2: A Controlled Comparison in 4 Patients (Annals of Internal Medicine)

The coronavirus pandemic and aerosols: Does COVID-19 transmit via expiratory particles? (Aerosol Science and Technology)

Detectable SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA in Feces of Three Children during Recovery Period of COVID-19 Pneumonia (Journal of Medical Virology)

Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree (Nature)

Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1 (NEJM)

Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19 (JAMA)

Rapid Expert Consultation on the Possibility of Bioaerosol Spread of SARS-CoV-2 for the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 1, 2020) (The National Academies Press)

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